ISO Surveillance Audit | Environment & Occupational Health and Safety Management

Corporate Social Responsibility

Kalpaka Chemicals Private Limited

Corporate Social Responsibility for the FY 2022-23

(Pursuant To Rule 5 & 9 of Companies (CSR Policy) Rules, 2014)

The List of CSR projects or programmes that are approved to be undertaken in areas or subjects specified in Schedule VII of the Companies Act, 2013 for the FY 2022-23: Particulars Project Type Amount spent in Rs. Lacs
1 School Building Education 12.07
2 Planting Trees Environment 1.51
Total 13.58

Activated Carbon

Coconut Shell Activated Carbon | Coconut Activated Carbon Manufacturer

Activated carbon is a form of carbon which could be produced from any carbonaceous material such as coal, rice husk, paddy husk, coconut shell, wood etc. Due to their low ash content, high carbon content and natural pore structure, coconut shells are ideal for producing high quality activated carbon. Activated carbon manufactured from coconut shell, i.e., coconut shell activated carbon is considered superior to those obtained from other sources mainly because of small macro-pores structure which renders it more effective for the adsorption of gas/vapor and for the removal of color and odour of compounds and as pre-filters in water purification because of the large internal surface area which makes it as a very good adsorbent for many contaminants in drinking water. The activated carbon is also used

  • In food and non-food industries.
  • In processing of cooking oil, sugar, and chemical matter purification
  • Used in drinking water and waste-water treatment.
  • Refining and bleaching of vegetable oils.
  • Recovery of solvents and other vapours & gold.
  • In gas mask for protection against toxic gases etc
Coconut Shell Activated Carbon



Steam activation is the most widely used process because it is generally used to activate both coconut shell and coal based carbons. Steam activated carbons are produced in a two-stage process. Firstly the raw material, in the form of lumps, pre-sized material is carbonized by heating it in an inert atmosphere such as flue gas, so that de-hydration and devolatilization of the carbon occur. Carbonization reduces the volatile content of the source material to fewer than 20%. A coke is produced which has pores that are either small or too restricted to be used as an adsorbent. The second stage is the activation stage which enlarges the pore structure, increases the internal surface area and makes it more accessible. The carbonized product is activated with steam at a temperature between 900°C and 1100°C. The chemical reaction between the carbon and steam takes place at the internal surface of the carbon, removing carbon from the pore walls and thereby enlarging the pores. The steam activation process allows the pore size to be readily altered and carbons can be produced to suit specific end-sues. Steam Activation produce activated carbon in the form of 1mm to 3mm pieces, which are crushed and screened to remove fines and dust to meet the specifications for granular activated carbons. To produce powdered activated carbons, the carbon pieces are further grinded using a gentle pulverizing action.


The activation process generates a network of minute openings of different diameters on the carbon surface which become the path for water to access the extended internal surface created by activation. Carbon has a natural affinity for organic pollutants which bind to its surface. Once activated, the carbon forms little pores and pockets that increase its surface area. An imbalance of forces then exists on the activated carbon atoms at the pore wall surface. To neutralize this imbalance, molecules are physically adsorbed, i.e., drawn and held physically to the pore wall (Van der Waals forces). In other words, compounds like pesticides, chloroform, and contaminants slide into the holes of this honeycomb-like substance and hold fast through a process called adsorption. The porosity of activated carbons offers a vast surface on which this adsorption can take place. Adsorption occurs in pores slightly larger than the molecules that are being adsorbed, which is why it is very important to match the molecule you are trying to adsorb with the pore size of the activated carbon.


Our activated carbon products are sourced from organic products such as coconut shell, coal, wood and so forth.

1) Coconut Shell Activated Carbon

Coconut shell activated carbon, made from coconut husk, is a vapor-activated material. As this carbon contains no chemical agent, when utilized on a medium, it won’t contaminate or respond with it. It’s anything but an absolutely normal and harmless to the ecosystem item, that has a little carbon impression and can efficiently absorb impurities with micro-pore molecular structure, for example, those present in drinking water. Coconut shell activated carbon, owing to its high abrasion resistance and unique physical and chemical characteristics, can safely support applications such as the recovery of gold and other precious metals.

2) Coal Activated Carbon

Coal based activated carbon originates from coal that has undergone a steam activation process.

3) Water Washed Activated Carbon

Kalbon Aquapura is a water washed high purity high activity granular activated carbon manufactured by steam activation from carefully selected coconut shells.

4) Acid Washed Activated Carbon

Kalbon Crystal is an acid washed high purity high activity granular activated carbon manufactured by steam activation from carefully selected coconut shells.

5) Wood Activated Carbon

Wood Activated Carbon is an acid washed high purity high activity granular activated carbon manufactured by steam activation from carefully selected coconut shells.

Powdered Activated Carbon in Effluent Treatment

Powdered Activated Carbon

Kalpaka is one among the best powdered activated carbon producers offering KALBON PAC that giving the reliable solutions in the treatment of effluents.

Effluent treatment is a very critical component of any industrial process because it must ensure the discharge criteria and it should meet the process requirement as the water need to be reused at a facility or other. Since reuse of water is becoming increasingly very important, activated carbon plays a crucial role because of its versatility.

Industrial waste water often contains many impurities such as dissolved and undissolved substances, easily degradable or persistent organic substances, heavy metals, and salts. Activated carbon eliminates these unwanted substances.

Activated carbon (also called as active carbon) by its property of adsorption, it is used in both water and wastewater treatment applications. Adsorption processes are commonly used in municipal drinking water treatment to remove synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), taste and odor-causing, color-forming organics, and disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors.

Both PAC (Powdered Activated Carbon) and GAC (Granular Activated Carbon) have its own merits and demerits in the field of effluent treatment. As per ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) PAC is the particles passing through an 80-mesh sieve (0.177mm) and smaller. Depending on specific application, by varying the manufacturing conditions, the pore structure is changed by giving unique adsorption properties specific to each product.

Powdered Activated Carbon is normally used in biological processes, where the organic toxic elements are removed. The carbon in the biological treatment process acts as a “buffer” against the effects of toxic organics in the wastewater. PAC stabilizes biological systems against upsets and shock loading, also it controls the color and odor. As it does many at time it supports the cost reduction more over it may reduce disposal costs while removing soluble organics.

In using Granular Activated Carbon, a column is normally used as a means of contact between the water to be treated and the activated carbon, whereby the water enters through the lower part and ascends to the top part. In this case, the particulate size is bigger than in the other. The porous nature and large surface area of GAC make it specifically ideal for physical adsorption and other treatment techniques. It is normally used to eliminate trace elements, especially organic trace elements, that may be present in the water and that have usually resisted a biological treatment. Despite their low concentration, these elements often give the water a bad smell, color or taste. Hence it is obvious that PAC is more advantageous over GAC. But GAC has a very attractive option that it can be reused through reactivation.

Moreover, since the statutory regulations are becoming more and more stringent, the planning to face the current and future regulations can never be ruled out. To address these challenges and regulations the operators should look for the new technologies and the respective suppliers continuously and promptly without ignoring proper research and testing to ensure the best ways to treat the effluents.

Kalpaka is one among the best activated carbon producers offering KALBON Powdered Activated Carbon that giving the reliable solutions in the treatment of effluents.

Backwashing of Industrial Media Filters


Water Filtration is to collect or gather impurities from the incoming water flow. When the pores of filters logged, it has to be cleaned by forcing out the accumulated particles by reversing the flow and increasing the velocity of water passing back through the filter. It is called backwashing. We can improve the quality of water by doing it at regular intervals.


First the filter is taken off line and the water is drained to a level that is above the surface of the filter bed. Next, compressed air is pushed up through the filter material causing the filter bed to expand, breaking up the compacted filter bed and forcing the accumulated particles into suspension for 20-30 minutes.


After the air scour cycle, clean backwash water is forced upwards through the filter bed, causing the filter bed to expand and carrying the particles in suspension into backwash troughs suspended above the filter surface. In some applications, air and water streams are simultaneously pushed upwards through the granular media. Backwashing continues for 30 minutes to one hour time, or until the turbidity of the backwash water is below an established value. A filter bed should have as much expansion as possible upto 30 to 50 percent of bed volume without loosing media or displacing the support gravel. At the end of the backwash cycle, the upward flow of water is terminated and the filter bed settles by gravity in its initial configuration.

After allowing sufficient time for the filter bed to settle by gravity, rinsing can be done with clear water for 30 minutes until the crystal clear water comes out as the output. Then water to be filtered is passed through the filter and the service cycle can be from 16hrs to 20hrs./


In order to measure the degree of the fouling problem, a measure called Silt Density Index (SDI) is used. Here filtration rates are calculated by exposing a 0.45-micron filter to the feed water under pressure. An SDI of less than 5 is typically considered acceptable for a reverse osmosis systems.(RO). If the value of SDI is higher than 6, stop passing the feed through RO membranes and the pretreatment cycle should be carried out to bring down the SDI levels to less than 4.

In any pretreatment system the SDI reduction in multi grade filters (MGF) should be brought down significantly. If the size of the impurities in the raw water is less than 25 microns, suitable coagulants/flocculants should be added in the raw water to increase the size of the particles (Impurities) and improve the filtering efficiency of MGF.

In carbon filters (CF) SDI reduction across the CF should be minimum. If a significant reduction in SDI is seen across the CF, it will foul very frequently. The remedy is to improve the particle removal efficiency of the MGF.


A turbidity spike can occur if the filter bed is not allowed to settle by gravity for a reasonable time. For small plants back washing can be carried out at the end of the day and allow the filter to settle by gravity at night time.


A carefully designed pretreatment plant aimed at reducing the SDI to as low as possible will go a longway in trouble free operation of the RO plants.

Coal Activated Carbon (vs) Coconut Shell Activated Carbon (vs) Wood Activated Carbon

Coconut Shell Activated Carbon | Coal activated carbon


In water treatment applications all the three varieties of activated carbon (Coconut Shell activated carbon, Coal activated carbon & Wood activated carbon) are used depending upon the nature of treating potable water and waste water. Hence there is a need for a comparative study of various types of carbon based on their specifications.

The following table shows the technical difference between the three types of activated carbons based on density, hardness and other parameters

1 DENSITY 0.48 TO 0.58 GM/CC (VERY HIGH) 0.38 TO 0.48 GM/CC (HIGH) 0.25 TO 0.30 GM/CC (LOW)
2 HARDNESS 98 % MIN (VERY HIGH) 90 – 95 %  (HIGH) 85% MIN (LOW)
8 X 16, 12 X 30, 8 X 30 8 X 30 , 12 X 40 , MINUS 325 MINUS 200
35 X 70, 80 X 325

Choosing the best solution

Porosity plays a vital role in choosing the right type of carbon. While Coconut activated carbon contains many micropores, Coal activated carbon contains mainly mesopores as well as as micropores whereas wood activated carbon contains mesopores & macropores only. If the molecular size of the impurities are less than 100 angstroms then coconut carbon can be preferred. Likewise if the molecular size of the impurities are between 100 and 1000 angstroms we can use coal carbon. And if the molecular size of the impurities are greater than 1000 angstroms Wood carbon can be considered.

In general

  • Wood activated carbon is most suitable for decolorization in powder form.
  • Coal activated carbon is suitable for odor removal.
  • Coconut activated carbon is suitable for dechlorination.

Cost wise coconut shell activated carbon is little bit expensive compared to coal & wood activated carbon. ”If we are to fill up a vessel of a given volume, the weight of coconut activated carbon required is more due to its high density”. But at the same time there is a negligible loss of material during back washing for coconut activated carbon due to its high hardness. Thus operation cost is low. Wettability is very high, and ash content is very low in Coconut activated carbon. Since it is a renewable source. It is preferable for drinking water treatment and RO water applications. Having said that Coconut activated carbon is best suited for drinking water products.

Coal activated carbon is used in drinking water projects. Apart from that, there are few other industrial applications like Effluent treatment and Waste water treatment. This type of carbon can be best suited for odor removal and cost effective applications.

Wood activated carbon is mainly used in POWDER applications where “decolorization” plays a vital role.


Choosing the right form of activated carbon products mainly depends upon your applications and cost of operation. Professional guidance is the best way to ensure the right product for a particular application.

Contaminants in Water and its Removal by Activated Carbon

Contaminants Removal From Drinking Water By Activated Carbon (AC) Filtration and It’s Treatment Principles

We are very much concerned about the contaminants in water supply that may affect our health drastically and it may cause taste and odour problems. The water contaminants might include solvents, pesticides, industrial wastes, or contaminants from leaking underground storage tanks. Contaminants such as benzene, chlorobenzene, trichlorobenzenes, carbon tetra chloride and vinyl chloride in drinking water may pose very serious health risks even if they are present in very low level. Pesticides such as Atrazine can also pose a very serious health hazard.

Sometime drinking water can be disinfected with chlorine or chloramines. During disinfection the reaction of chlorine with organic matter can produce compounds such as trihalomethanes as byproducts and these byproducts may increase the risk of certain cancers.

Activated carbon (AC) filtration can effectively reduce some of these organic chemicals as well as certain harmless taste and odour producing compounds. AC filtration can be effective in removing chlorine, chloramines and some disinfection byproducts.

In addition lead from some older pipes and soldered joints may be may be present in water from some taps. AC filtration can reduce lead in drinking though another filter medium is commonly used in addition to AC filtration for this purpose. But only specialized AC filters effectively adsorb heavy metals. Radon, a radioactive decay product of od natural Uranium that can be related to lung cancer, can be found in ground water. Radon gas can also be removed by AC filtration.

Treatment Principles

There are two basic types of water filters 1. Sediment filters (or mechanical filters ) which filter particles by size and 2. Adsorptive (or reactive) filters which contain a medium that adsorbs or react with a water contaminant.

Activated carbon filtration is an adsorptive process in which the contaminant is attracted to and held (adsorbed) onto the surface of carbon particles. The efficiency of adsorption process is influenced by carbon characteristics (particle size, pore size, surface density and hardness and the contaminant characteristics (concentration, tendency of chemical to leave the water, solubility of contaminant and contaminant interaction to the carbon surface).

The carbon medium can be bituminous coal, anthracite coal, wood products, coconut shells or peanut shells. By activating the medium by steam or any other chemical without oxygen at high temperature, the carbon can acquire more surface area. More the surface area, greater the contaminant removal. In some cases, carbon also can be acid washed or impregnated with a compound to enhance the removal of specific contaminants. Also, greater contact time of water with the AC filters can increase the adsorption of contaminants.

To conclude, drinking water treatment using activated carbon (AC) filtration is an effective method for removing certain organic compounds, unpleasant tastes and odours and chlorine. An AC filtration system can be selected based on water analysis and assessment of individual user’s need and situation. Regular replacement of the filter/cartridge is critical to maintain the effectiveness and reduce bacterial contamination of the filter.

Activated Carbon as Deodorant


Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal is a form of carbon that is processed to make it extremely porous and thus to have a very large surface area available for adsorption. Due to its high degree of micro porosity, just one gram of activated carbon has a surface area of more than 500 m2 (or about 2 tennis courts). Appropriate activation for specific applications results in optimum surface area and further chemical treatment often improves the adsorbing properties of the material. Activated carbon filters are widely used to reduce odors and because of its property of reducing the odor, it is a good deodorant.

What is odor?

The odor is the nose’s detection and the typical nose cannot detect the presence of the odor in air and the odor is felt absent, although the odor causing chemical is still there at some reduced level. Sometime, smelling most odors leads to a phenomenon called odor fatigue, where the nose’s sensitivity decreases with extended exposure. For example, someone entering the room can clearly smell the odor in a room, but the person who has been there in the room for a long time cannot sense the odor. Hence, if someone want to check the presence of an odor in a room, he/she must breathe some actual “fresh” air for some time; otherwise he/she cannot differentiate it.

How activated carbon removes odor?

Activated carbon is like a sponge it captures chemicals that cause odors and it works by a phenomenon called “Adsorption” where the odor compound is trapped inside the activated carbon and retained, but the material doing the adsorption does not change size. Adsorption differs from Absorption, which can also remove things, but is characterized by a physical change like swelling due to the amount of material removed. In Adsorption, there is an increase in weight.

At the adsorbed state, odor compound from the air gets trapped inside the activated carbon, which is like a mouse being trapped in a mouse trap where it cannot find a way to come out. Brand new activated carbon has lots of unoccupied holes, and virtually every compound that passes through gets trapped in the pores and it is retained.

When we are buying an activated carbon filter, we are basically buying a certain amount of odor removal capacity and that capacity is directly related to the quality and quantity of activated carbon in the filter.

Kalpaka provides a better solution for this in terms of both quality and quantity of activated carbon in the filter.

Activated Carbon in Oil and Gas Refineries


The versatility of activated carbon allows its application in a variety of processes. Not only can activated carbon provide an increasingly important role in water purification, cleaning contaminated water before emission to the environment, also it can provide an extremely important economic contribution to the operations of oil and gas refineries. By assisting in the recovery of a range of expensive process chemicals, activated carbon can have a direct impact on the cost of refinery operations.

In many cases, processing operations are located close to the primary extraction point of the refinery feedstock, and the concentration of the world’s oil and gas resource in the most areas of the world means that management of water is a critical subject. Condensing steam provides an easily recovered resource, however, the criticality of the quality of the recirculated water demands the use of high purity specialized activated carbons. Where the resulting product is used for produced or potable water applications, activated carbon can assist in the achievement of extremely high purity products.

With its high adsorption capacities ranging from odorous compounds to dark colored bodies activated carbon is an excellent option for the purification of raw materials, intermediates and end products in oil and gas industry. By removing unwanted contaminants like mercury, colors, sulfur components and odors allows for the consistent production of high quality natural gas, oil and other petrochemical products. Activated carbon plays a vital role here by cleaning gas scrubber liquids, decolorizing field condensates and providing catalyst support for hydrocarbon sweetening.

In gas scrubber system activated carbon cleans the gas scrubber liquids like amines, glycols which are used in the gas absorption systems for the removal of sour gases (carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide) and water vapor from natural gas.

Due to the high removal efficiency, low pressure drop and high hardness of activated carbon it finds its superior application for the removal of mercury (in natural gas) which is very harmful to the environment.

Activated carbon is also used in Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) technology where the separation of gases is done by adsorption and desorption at different pressures. Specially developed activated carbon (GAC) is being used as catalyst carriers for hydrocarbon sweetening and this process involves the catalytic extraction of mercaptans from refinery products.

Activated carbon also finds it’s application in field condensate purification where heavier hydrocarbons and other colored bodies are removed. Due to its high adsorption and low leachable silica content properties of it is used for the removal of dissolved organic compounds like mineral oil in steam condensates generated from steam boilers. It is statutory that airborne emissions of harmful or odorous components and other contaminants from industrial process gases to be restricted to a minimum as per the norms. Activated carbon is very much cost effective in meeting these challenges and removing organic and inorganic impurities at levels up to a few hundred ppm.

Health Benefits of Activated Charcoal

Activated Charcoal

Activated charcoal is a powerful natural treatment used to trap toxins and chemicals in the body, allowing them to be flushed out so the body doesn’t reabsorb them. It’s made from a variety of sources, but when used for natural healing, it’s important to select activated charcoal made from coconut shells or other natural sources.

One of the most popular activated charcoal uses is for the safe and effective treatment of poisoning and drug overdoses. It’s used in emergency trauma centers across the world. In addition, it’s used to reduce bloating and gas, lower cholesterol, treat bile flow problems safely and even prevent hangovers.

Research shows that activated charcoal works better than stomach pumping (gastric lavage) in some situations.

Treatment Principles

Activated charcoal works by trapping toxins and chemicals in its millions of tiny pores. Typically, however, it’s not used when petroleum, alcohol, lye, acids or other corrosive poisons are ingested. It doesn’t absorb the toxins, however. Instead it works through the chemical process of adsorption. In the body, absorption is the reaction of elements, including nutrients, chemicals and toxins, soaked up and assimilated into the blood stream. Adsorption is the chemical reaction where elements bind to a surface.

The porous surface of activated charcoal has a negative electric charge that causes positive charged toxins and gas to bond with it. The nooks and crannies in activated charcoal are created through a heating process.

The top 10 health benefits of activated charcoal

1.Whitens Teeth

Sometime, teeth become stained from coffee, tea, wine or berries. It helps whiten teeth while promoting good oral health by changing the pH balance in the mouth, helping prevent cavities, bad breath and gum disease.

It works to whiten teeth by adsorbing plaque and microscopic tidbits that stain teeth. This activated charcoal use is cost-effective and an all-natural solution for a bright smile.

To whiten your teeth naturally, wet a toothbrush and dip into powdered activated charcoal. Brush teeth as normal, paying special attention to areas showing the most staining. Sip a bit of water, swish through mouth thoroughly and spit. Rinse well, until spit is clear.

For best results, brush your teeth with activated charcoal powder 2–3 times per week.

2.Alleviates Gas and Bloating

One activated charcoal use often overlooked is to lessen uncomfortable gas and bloating. It works by binding the gas-causing byproducts in foods that cause discomfort.

A study in the American Journal of Gastroenterology found that activated charcoal prevents intestinal gas following a typical gas-producing meal.

3.Treats Alcohol Poisoning (and Helps Prevent Hangovers)

While activated carbon does not adsorb alcohol, it does help quickly remove other toxins from the body that contribute to poisoning. Alcohol is rarely consumed in its pure form; mixers that include artificial sweeteners and chemicals are common. Activated charcoal treats poisoning by removing these toxins.

4.Mold Cleansing

Most people don’t think about mold living in their bodies, but it can. Toxic mold causes depression, kidney and liver failure, decreased brain function, heart disease, eye irritation, headaches, vomiting, impaired immune system function and severe respiratory distress. Homes that have flooded, or even those with small leaks under a sub-floor or in the walls, can create an environment where mold can thrive. Poor ventilation contributes to the problem, and bathrooms, basements and laundry rooms are particularly prone to mold growth. If there is visible mold in your home, it must be mitigated properly. It’s important to wear gloves and a protective mask to keep from inhaling toxic mold during cleanup. Activated charcoal, baking soda, apple cider vinegar, tea tree oil and borax can be used to clean mold off hard surfaces and keep mold from growing in the future.

5.Water Filtration

Activated charcoal traps impurities in water including solvents, pesticides, industrial waste and other chemicals. Therefore, it’s used in water filtration systems throughout the world. However, it doesn’t trap viruses, bacteria and hard-water minerals.

6.Emergency Toxin Removal

As mentioned above, one of the most common activated charcoal uses is to remove toxin and chemicals in the event of ingestion. Most organic compounds, pesticides, mercury, fertilizer and bleach bind to activated charcoal’s surface, allowing for quicker elimination, while preventing the absorption in the body.

Its is also used in the event of an accidental, or purposeful, overdose of many pharmaceutical drugs and over-the-counter medications. It’s effective for aspirin, opium, cocaine, morphine and acetaminophen. It’s important that the proper amount is administered as quickly as possible, within an hour of ingestion.

7.Skin and Body Health

Activated charcoal uses extend beyond internal applications. For external treatments, it’s effective at treating body odor and acne and relieving discomfort from insect bites, rashes from poison ivy or poison oak, and snake bites.

After a mosquito bite or bee sting, mix one capsule of activated charcoal with ½ tablespoon of coconut oil, and dab on affected area. Reapply every 30 minutes until itching and discomfort are gone. As activated charcoal stains nearly everything it touches, wrap with a bandage

8.Digestive Cleanse

It helps promote a healthy digestive tract by removing toxins that cause allergic reactions, oxidative damage and poor immune system function. By removing the toxins from your system, it can reduce joint pain, increase energy and increase mental function.

Environmental factors, including pesticides on food, chemicals in the water we drink and exposure to mold, create a toxic burden in our bodies.


Aging is a natural part of life, but due to the toxic load we are exposed to through food, our homes and workplaces, and our environment, to prevent pre-mature aging we must get rid of them.

10.Reduces High Cholesterol

Studies around the world show that activated carbon reduces bad cholesterol and increases good cholesterol as much as some prescription medications.

What one should do after consuming activated carbon?

Whenever you take activated carbon, it’s very important to drink 12–16 glasses of water per day. Activated charcoal can cause dehydration if adequate amounts of water aren’t consumed. In addition, this helps to flush out the toxins quickly and prevents constipation experienced by some individuals.

Where to Buy Activated Charcoal

When selecting activated charcoal products for any of the uses above, it’s vital that you know what it’s made from. Not all activated charcoal supplements are created equally. Look for activated charcoal made from coconut shells or identified wood species that have ultra-fine grains. In the activated charcoal powdered form, many products have added artificial sweeteners to make them more palatable; avoid these.

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